Weeds With Spiny Seed Pods

ILGM

Buy Cannabis Seeds Online

Appreciate this witchy weed’s beautiful blooms and spiky seedpods, but beware. Its notoriously toxic seeds and leaves can cause convulsions, hallucinations or even death, and climate change is making its poisons even more powerful. Thorn apple is a weed that prefers a warmer climate than Britain, but in hot summers they are quite commonly found. Another common name, devil's snare, sounds alarming, but a few simple precautions will enable gardeners to handle this weed without great risk. Beautiful but dangerous, jimsonweed sent British soldiers who used it in a salad into a stupor for 11 days. We find it in Brooklyn.

Weed of the Month: Jimson Weed

Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) is a beautiful, witchy plant that begins blooming in late summer and continues through the first frost. A member of the notorious nightshade family, its more famous cousins include tomato, eggplant, pepper, tobacco, and potato. Most members of this plant family are poisonous, and jimson weed is no exception. All parts of the plant are toxic, most particularly the seeds. Potent amounts of alkaloid compounds are present, which potentially cause convulsions, hallucinations, and even death if ingested. And as climate change increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, studies have found that the toxicity of plants like jimson weed only increases.

The genus name Datura comes from the Hindi word for the plant, noteworthy since most botanical names are derived from Latin or Greek. The origins of the plant itself are contested—every source I checked listed a different native origin, ranging from Mexico to India, and it now grows all over the world. Not surprisingly, it has found its way into many cultural and medicinal traditions. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and Native American shamanistic practices all employ jimson weed medicinally or ritualistically. Its seeds and leaves are used as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, and narcotic.

Having grown up in Virginia, I was intrigued by one of the common names I saw recurring in my plant books—Jamestown weed—and researched the origins. One story simply connects the first New World observations of the plant to settlers in this early Virginia colony. A more famous tale tells of the plant’s accidental ingestion by some British soldiers sent there to suppress Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676. After eating some in a stew, the soldiers spent 11 days in a hallucinatory stupor, blowing feathers, kissing and pawing their companions, and making faces and grinning “like monkey[s].”

Jimson weed’s white to purple blooms are fragrant at night, attracting moths and other nocturnal pollinators, a common trait in white-bloomed plants. The rest of the plant, however, is stinky! Crush and sniff the oaklike leaves, and you’ll understand why domesticated and wild animals avoid eating this plant—it smells a bit like feet. Indeed, accidental poisonings tend be more common among humans than among other animals.

See also  Weed Seed Growing Kits

Though the trumpet-shaped flowers are stunning, my favorite part of the plant is the devilish-looking seedpod. The size of a Ping-Pong ball and covered in spikes, the seed capsule splits into four parts like a monster’s maw, revealing the dark brown seeds inside. In the winter you might notice its tall, dry stalks bearing the prickly seedpods, which to me look like the scepter for a demon. With all its extraordinary looks and lore, jimson weed is a fascinating plant to contemplate (but maybe not cultivate)!

The Weed of the Month series explores the ecology and history of the common wild plants that most gardeners consider weeds.

Browse the Weed of the Month archives >

Saara Nafici is the executive director of Added Value/Red Hook Community Farm. She is also the former coordinator of the Garden Apprentice Program at Brooklyn Botanic Garden and a longtime activist, feminist, bicyclist, naturalist, and youth educator. Follow her weedy plant adventures on Instagram.

Datura stramonium (thorn apple)

Thorn apple is a weed that prefers a warmer climate than Britain, but in hot summers they are quite commonly found. Another common name, devil’s snare, sounds alarming, but a few simple precautions will enable gardeners to handle this weed without great risk.

Quick facts

Latin name Datura stramonium
Common name Thorn apple
Life cycle Annual
Areas affected Uncultivated ground, beds, borders

Jump to

What is Datura stramomium

Datura stramonium (or thorn apple as it is commonly known) is an annual weed of gardens, roadsides and other waste or cultivated land. It is widely naturalised in warmer countries throughout the world, and is quite common in the British Isles, often appearing in waste and cultivated ground.

Although quite a striking plant, it is as well to be aware that all parts, particularly the seeds, are highly poisonous. It belongs to Solanaceae, a family which includes the potato and tobacco, and many members of this family contain toxic substances. This page looks at options for gardeners when Datura stramonium is becoming a problem.

Appearance

This weed can grow to heights of 1m (3¼ft). It flowers from July to October with wide, funnel-shaped flowers. These are usually white but plants with purple or lilac flowers and purplish stems are referred to as Datura stramonium var. chalybaea (syn. D. stramonium var. tatula).

It produces seedpods which are large and spiny (hence the common name thorn apple) though plants with spineless seedpods are known and these are referred to as D. stramonium var. inermis.

The leaves very broad and coarsely toothed.

The problem

The potentially harmful poisonous and hallucinogenic properties of this plant can sound alarming especially when made much of in the media. The leaves and seed pods also look exotic and alien. In fact this is quite a small plant and not very invasive in Britain. Common sense precautions limit risk factors so that gardeners need not be too alarmed by this weed.

See also  Weed Seeds For Sale Discreet

The seed appears to retain its viability for many years when buried and germinates when the soil is disturbed. Spread is facilitated by human activities – in gardens it appears to be a contaminant of birdseed.

Control

The RHS believes that avoiding pests, diseases and weeds by good practice in cultivation methods, cultivar selection, garden hygiene and encouraging or introducing natural enemies, should be the first line of control. If chemical controls are used, they should be used only in a minimal and highly targeted manner.

Cultural control

There are a number of non-chemical control options.

Dig, pull or hoe out plants before seed is set. Seedlings and plants that have not set seed can be added to the compost heap where the toxins will naturally break down. However, plants that have set seed should be consigned to the green waste collection, buried deeply (60cm/2ft or more) or burnt in order that the seed does not disperse in the garden or persist in the compost heap. Always wear gloves or thoroughly wash hands after handling this plant.

Use a mulch of organic matter, at least 5cm (2in) thick or opaque sheeting, such as woven polypropylene, to smother this weed.

Weedkiller control

Contact herbicides such as acetic acid (eg. Weedol Gun! Fast Acting, Roundup Speed Ultra, Spot On Fast Acting Weedkiller or Resolva Fast Weedkiller), fatty acids (eg. Job Done Garden Ultrafast Weedkiller) and pelargonic acid (eg. Doff 24/7 Fast Acting Weedkiller, Roundup NL Weed Control or Resolva Xpress Weedkiller) are good at knocking back young annual weeds such as thorn apple. Systemic herbicides such as glyphosate (e.g. Roundup Fast Action, SBM Job done General Purpose Weedkiller or Doff Advanced Concentrated Weedkiller) will also be effective and can be used when mature plants need to be eliminated.

These herbicides are non-selective and so care should be taken while spraying near other plants. Plants to be avoided can be covered with a bucket/flowerpot or screened with plastic when spraying.

Inclusion of a weedkiller product does not indicate a recommendation or endorsement by the RHS. It is a list of products currently available to the home gardener.

Download

Weedkillers for gardeners (Adobe Acrobat pdf document outlining weedkillers available to gardeners; see sections 3a and 4)

Urban Forager | In This Wicked Weed, the Devil’s Trumpet Blows

Jimsonweed has been on my radar ever since I researched it for a presentation on wild weeds and fungi last year, so I was intrigued when I discovered some spiny seedpods recently in an alley in Gowanus, Brooklyn. Originally thinking they were empress tree pods, which are similarly sculptural but smooth, I brought them back to my workspace, where a friend helped to correctly identify them as Datura stramonium, or jimsonweed, and their source (the garden of a local artist around the corner).

See also  Cannabis Seed Auction Sites

Jimsonweed, a k a Jamestown weed, mad apple, devil’s trumpet, locoweed, stinkwort or thorn apple, is a strikingly gothic-looking plant with seedpods that could have inspired the creator of “Little Shop of Horrors.” It has toothed leaves, stems that are reddish-to-dark eggplant in color and lovely trumpet-shape white or lavender blossoms, as long as a finger, that open at dusk. Found along roadsides, ditches and open fields in most states, including New York, where it grows as far south as Staten Island, it’s listed as a noxious weed in Pennsylvania and banned in Connecticut. An informal poll of writers from the Writhing Society at Proteus Gowanus described the plant as smelling like peanut butter, skunk cabbage and someone’s childhood cottage, but the first time I sniffed it, I thought of tahini.

Much of the literature and testimony surrounding Datura stramonium and related species, including D. meteloides, D. wrightii and D. innoxia, point to its psychotropic, hallucinogenic and narcotic properties, where it is inextricably linked to shamanism (in Carlos Castaneda’s “The Teachings of Don Juan”) and even zombies (from Wade Davis’s “Passage of Darkness” and “The Serpent and the Rainbow”).

Some of the no-joke side effects from ingesting jimsonweed read like a 1970s public service announcement warning against angel dust and PCP: dilated pupils, racing heartbeat, hallucination, delirium, combative behavior and in severe cases, coma and seizures.

In 1676, British soldiers sent to Virginia to quell Bacon’s Rebellion ingested Datura stramonium in a boiled salad and remained in a stupor for 11 days. More recently, in 2008, a family in Maryland was poisoned when they mistook it for an edible garden green and ate it in a stew.

Written testimonials for Datura on the Erowid Web site , under titles like “Truly the Devil’s Weed,” “Nightmares in Flux” and “This is Madness,” include delusions of phantom cigarettes, conversations with imaginary friends, amnesia, blurred vision, a desire for cold showers and other irrational behavior. It’s no wonder that Amy Stewart devoted an entire chapter to it in her book “Wicked Plants.”

According to Daniel E. Moerman’s “Native American Medicinal Plants,” some American Indians use jimsonweed topically for wounds and inflammation, and there are reports of it being used as a treatment for asthma. But because of the plant’s more negative plant-human interactions, most folks are understandably wary of it, and many parents have been advised to root it out of backyards and gardens.

Jimsonweed is now in full flower across the city and in some cases sprouting mature seedpods, but I’m content to admire its beauty from an arm’s length.

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

Average rating 5 / 5. Vote count: 1

No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post.