Negative Side Effects Of CBD Gummies

CBDISTILLERY

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Curious about how CBD affects the body? CBD has many promising uses. See how it may be able to help with your condition. CBD oil is considered to have a very high safety profile, but like any substance with the ability to change brain chemistry, its use can have some side effects. Learn more about CANNABIDIOL (CBD) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain CANNABIDIOL (CBD).

CBD: Benefits, Types, & Side Effects

CBD, or cannabidiol, is recommended for everything from anxiety and stress to indigestion and depression. And, a lot of people are using it. A recent Gallup poll found 1 in 7 adults in the U.S. has used CBD.

So, does it help? Studies of CBD are ongoing, but some benefits have been found.

What is CBD?

CBD is an herbal remedy – a treatment that comes from a plant, in this case, it is the cannabis sativa plant. Cannabis sativa has been used for thousands of years for both its healing and mind-altering effects.

There are two types of cannabis sativa: hemp and marijuana. The hemp plant is the source of CBD used in most products.

Hemp and marijuana plants

CBD Defined

CBD is one of a group of substances called cannabinoids derived from the cannabis sativa plant.

There are dozens of cannabinoids, as well as other substances, in cannabis sativa.

CBD is the primary cannabinoid in hemp. It has various healing properties. For example, it seems to lessen inflammation, the body’s response to illness or injury. In this way, it may help treat many different diseases.

CBD is not psychoactive; it does not have a mind-altering effect.

CBD vs. THC

To better understand CBD, it helps to contrast it with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Many people are familiar with THC. It is the best known of the cannabinoids. THC was identified long before CBD. THC is the substance in marijuana that causes the high.

Marijuana contains more THC than CBD. Hemp has a very small amount of THC, less than 0.3 percent, and not enough to cause a high. As of 2018, CBD from hemp became legal in the U.S. with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintaining control.

CBD’s main property is healing and it’s derived from the hemp plant. On the other hand, THC’s main property is mind-altering and it’s derived from the marijuana plant.

Excessive and continued use of CBD may lead to side effects, including memory loss, slow reaction time, and changes in mood such as irritability.

How CBD Works

As stated above, CBD is in a class of chemicals called cannabinoids. Because it comes from a plant, it is further classified as a phytocannabinoid.

The human body also produces natural cannabinoids, called endocannabinoids.

Both variations of cannabinoids act on cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are part of the complex endocannabinoid system (ECS). The system regulates the release of neurotransmitters (chemicals that communicate between nerve cells) in the brain, as well as in other parts of the nervous system. The ECS responds to both types of cannabinoids, phyto- and endo-.

By acting on the ECS, CBD may have many different effects on the body. Examples include: balancing the body’s overall physical functions (homeostasis), reducing pain sensation, and lessening the body’s reaction to injury or inflammation.

Medical Uses of CBD

CBD has been recommended for many different purposes, some of them tested, and some not. The prescription drug Epidiolex is the only CBD product approved by the FDA. It may be prescribed to treat two rare seizure disorders, or types of epilepsy, in children and adults.

Studies are ongoing, but some results show that CBD may be effective in reducing anxiety/stress and chronic (long-term) pain like back pain. It may also be effective for insomnia, or trouble sleeping.

There are studies of oral, topical, and inhaled CBD products for use in many other conditions, including dystonia (movement disorder), Fragile X syndrome (rare genetic disorder), graft-versus-host disease (bone marrow transplant rejection), multiple sclerosis (MS), opioid withdrawal, schizophrenia, and smoking cessation. CBD is also used to alleviate symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease, but some study results advise against it.

Types of CBD Products

CBD products can be used by mouth (oral/edible) or applied to the skin (topical). These products have different concentrations of CBD.

CBD oil may be used both ways.

Other oral products include edible gummies and capsules. Topical CBD products may also be found in lotions, creams, or balms. Again, they are available in various concentrations.

CBD Dosage

The proper dosing of CBD for different conditions is still being studied, so new information is continuing to become available.

CBD should be used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Make sure you read and follow the label carefully. Only use the amount instructed. Using more may increase the chance of side effects, interactions, or other problems.

The dose of a CBD product depends on the form and strength, as well as the concentration of CBD in it. It’s also based on whether or not it has other active ingredients.

Side Effects and Interactions of CBD

Common CBD side effects include: drowsiness, dry mouth, vomiting, decreased appetite, weight loss, and abnormal liver function blood tests.

INTERACTIONS: Check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking CBD with other medications. CBD may interact with some commonly prescribed medications including warfarin, lithium, sertraline, tramadol, codeine, captopril, and valproic acid and carbamazepine (both are anti-seizure medications).Fatty foods may increase the absorption of CBD.

CAUTIONS: People with liver problems or Parkinson’s disease should not take CBD.

Do not use CBD with medicines that are prescribed to control seizures or epilepsy (e.g. valproic acid or carbamazepine).

CBD may increase drowsiness when taken with other sedating medicines or herbal products.

Medical Research

Oral CBD for Pain

Research on the safety and effectiveness of oral CBD for pain is ongoing. Some of the research includes:

The National Academies of Sciences (NAS) found significant evidence that cannabis was an effective treatment for long-term (chronic) pain. However, much of the research was done outside of the U.S. And the forms of cannabis studied in the U.S. were not the same as those commonly used.

Reviews and meta-analyses of cannabinoids found the following:

Studies looked at the use of cannabinoids (THC alone and CBD combined with THC) in people with chronic pain. In general, results showed improvements in pain measures, but they were not statistically significant.

Studies found evidence, although not high-quality, that cannabis-based medicines reduced long-term nerve (chronic neuropathic) pain. All but two studies used plant-based THC/CBD mouth spray products (the other two used synthetic oral THC products).

Results of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effectiveness of cannabinoids in chronic non-cancer pain showed a 30% reduction in pain in 1 out of 3 of those using cannabinoids. These results were considered significant.

Topical CBD for Pain

There is also continuing research on the safety and effectiveness of topical CBD. Some of the research includes the following:

Although not in humans, an animal study found transdermal CBD had the ability to lessen the pain and inflammation of arthritis.

Topical cannabidiol oil was studied in 29 people with lower limb peripheral neuropathy. After using the oil for 4 weeks, results showed less intense and sharp pain and fewer other uncomfortable sensations.

Applications of transdermal cannabidiol were studied in people with temporomandibular (joint of the jaw) disorders (TMD) that caused myofascial (coverings of muscle) pain. Those studied had less muscle tension and pain after applying the topical CBD for 2 weeks.

Oral CBD to Help with Sleep

Oral CBD products may be used to help with sleep. This research includes the following:

Early results of research suggest that a 160mg dose of cannabidiol before bed significantly improves sleep duration compared to a placebo in patients with insomnia. Smaller doses did not have this effect. Also, patients did not feel drowsy the next morning.

Early research on CBD for the treatment of insomnia suggests that it may be effective. Additional studies are needed.

Animal studies of CBD found increased total sleep and improved sleep quality when sleep issues were associated with anxiety/stress.

Medical cannabis users reported they used cannabis with higher CBD and lower THC concentrations for their insomnia. They also reported a decrease in the time required to fall asleep.

A review and meta-analysis of 8 studies with low-quality evidence of cannabis-based medicines found that they were better at reducing sleep problems compared to inactive medicines (placebo).

A review of clinical trials of the effect of cannabinoids on sleep suggested that cannabinoids could improve sleep quality, decrease sleep disturbances, and decrease the time it takes to fall asleep. However, there were limiting factors, such as the small size of the studies.

An app was used to measure changes in insomnia in over 400 people taking medical cannabis. Results showed an average symptom severity reduction of 4.5 points on a 10-point scale, a significant improvement in insomnia.

Another review with meta-analysis of 104 studies evaluated cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. Within this review and analysis, the effect of cannabinoids on sleep was also examined. There was low-quality evidence of improved sleep.

Conclusion

The takeaway is that the initial research of CBD is promising but there is still much to learn. It may help with some conditions like long-term pain and sleep.

Because it is so widely available and recommended for so many problems, it must be used carefully and purchased from reliable sources.

CBD is just one of many supplements that can alleviate back pain or insomnia. Take a Goodpath assessment for an integrative program that incorporates supplements, nutrition, mind-body therapies, and exercise.

Are There Side Effects to CBD Oils, Pills, or Gummies?

The increasing prevalence of hemp-derived cannabidiol (CBD) products has necessitated the spread of information regarding its properties and — most importantly — whether it can be harmful. If you are brand new to the industry and looking to try something new, you are probably wondering: are there side effects to CBD oils, pills, or gummies? Thankfully, CBD is considered to have a very high safety profile, but like any substance with the ability to change brain chemistry, its use can result in potential side effects.

CBD is one of hundreds of compounds that are found in the cannabis plant, known as cannabinoids. These specialized molecules are designed to interact with specific internal receptors that are found throughout our brain and body. These cannabinoid receptors can influence many different processes regarding the modulation of other body systems, which is why people are affected when they consume cannabinoid compounds.

The Most common side effects of cbd

Those who are just learning about CBD may not realize that it does not have the ability to make you intoxicated. Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the only compound in cannabis that is capable of doing that. This is why hemp is ideal for extracting CBD oil, because it contains only trace amounts of THC, so users will not experience inebriation after its consumption.

However, several clinical trials have shown that patients who were treated with high doses of CBD (In some cases, over 1,300mg in a single day) had reported symptoms that ranged from mild to moderately severe, although nothing significantly life threatening. Research has so far indicated that the most common side effects of CBD can include things like queasiness, anxiety, fatigue, gastrointestinal issues, trouble with balance, dry mouth, and fluctuations in appetite or weight.

Nausea or vomiting

One reported side effect of CBD use is nausea, or vomiting. This can result from taking too high of a dose, which can be a different amount for each person as it is based on their individual biochemistry. For some new users, they may have trouble digesting the oil, which could potentially lead to an upset stomach.

When first trying out a CBD product, it is best to begin with the smallest dose possible, and work your way up. It is also important to note that when taking a tincture, it is necessary to hold the oil underneath your tongue for at least 1-2 minutes, or until the oil has been completely absorbed by the sublingual gland. In this way, the compounds are able to bypass the digestive system and go directly into the bloodstream.

Anxiety

Although many studies are currently underway to determine whether CBD helps with anxiety, some patients have indicated that it actually triggered rather than relieved their anxiety. This could be due to an overly high dose, although the quality of the CBD oil can have a huge effect as well. It may also correspond to the causes of individual stress or anxiety, whether they are due to external factors regarding lifestyle or internal body mechanisms that involve brain chemistry.

Tiredness

There has been a lot of research compiled regarding the use of CBD as a sleep aid, which makes sense as some users have reported excessive fatigue and tiredness associated with larger doses.

Diarrhea

A small percentage of users experienced gastrointestinal issues like diarrhea after consuming CBD. This may also be due in part to the carrier oil that is used as a preservative in CBD products. Different types of carriers can include olive oil, coconut oil, avocado oil, or propylene glycol, and some people might be sensitive to a particular type.

Dizziness

Although there have been a few instances of dizziness associated with CBD use, this may also be an effect of gastrointestinal issues due to sensitivity of other ingredients. This is why it is very important to research all of the ingredients for a particular product, in case of allergies or other components that may cause a reaction.

Dry Mouth

Because CBD oil can be absorbed through the sublingual gland, cannabinoids have the potential to influence saliva production. However, if a CBD product causes excessive dry mouth, it may also be an indication of higher amounts of THC, which is primarily associated with this kind of symptom.

Always check the batch lab reports of a particular product to ensure that it does not have more than 0.3% THC. Some states have allowed for medical use of CBD products that contain more than the federal maximum amount of THC, so that is definitely something to consider and be aware of.

Changes in Appetite or Weight

Some consumers say they have experienced changes in their appetite or weight after using a CBD product. Cannabis products are often used in palliative care for terminal patients as a way to stimulate appetite, and this is considered one of the most common side effects of cannabinoids.

When cbd side effects may occur

It has become so popular in part because of its high safety profile, but when CBD side effects may occur can depend on the quality of the CBD product being consumed. Unfortunately, there are a lot of disreputable companies out there who are looking to make a quick buck in such a fast growing industry. This means they possibly use inferior processes for extracting the oil — some techniques involve the use of harsh chemicals which strip the plant of its natural components, and these processes could potentially leave behind trace amounts of toxic compounds. Currently, CO2 extraction is considered one of the cleanest and most efficient methods for extracting CBD oil.

It is important when choosing a CBD product to ensure that the company provides independent lab tests to confirm the purity of the oil, and to make sure that it does not contain higher amounts of THC, which is federally illegal. Many companies may not want to pay for this, which can be a disadvantage because not all batches of oil will come out with the same concentrations of cannabinoids, and it is important to follow these guidelines in order to ensure that only minimal amounts of THC are in the product.

Is CBD fda approved?

So, is CBD FDA approved? Currently, the Federal Drug Administration is still weighing in on CBD, and has not yet approved its medical use. Part of the issue is the expensive involved with clinical trials, which can cost millions of dollars.

There has been significant confusion within the industry because while hemp products and CBD are federally legal through the 2018 Farm Bill, the FDA has yet to approve their inclusion as an ingestible health supplement. However, FDA officials are aware of the high demand and pervasive use of CBD products, which has prompted them to request users, health practitioners, and industry experts to give their own experiences and comments regarding this issue. They held the first in a series of hearings in the summer of 2019, where people were invited to share their views, and they had also maintained a public comment forum on the FDA website where people were encouraged to give their thoughts on the matter.

It is believed that it will only be a matter of time before the FDA officially approves CBD, but many feel the process is taking too long. The fact that there are no established guidelines means that less scrupulous companies are able to operate with minimal oversight, which ultimately puts consumers at risk.

It is important to continue pressuring the FDA to make significant progress with regard to this decision, and hemp advocates continue to pursue legal avenues that would force them to speed up the process. Until then, both companies and customers will be at risk from the unstable regulatory landscape.

CANNABIDIOL (CBD) – Uses, Side Effects, and More

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical in the Cannabis sativa plant, also known as cannabis or hemp. One specific form of CBD is approved as a drug in the U.S. for seizures.

Over 80 chemicals, known as cannabinoids, have been found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most famous ingredient in cannabis. But CBD is obtained from hemp, a form of the Cannabis sativa plant that only contains small amounts of THC. CBD seems to have effects on some chemicals in the brain, but these are different than the effects of THC.

A prescription form of CBD is used for seizure disorder (epilepsy). CBD is also used for anxiety, pain, a muscle disorder called dystonia, Parkinson disease, Crohn disease, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Laws passed in 2018 made it legal to sell hemp and hemp products in the US. But that doesn’t mean that all CBD products made from hemp are legal. Since CBD is an approved prescription drug, it can’t be legally included in foods or dietary supplements. CBD can only be included in “cosmetic” products. But there are still CBD products on the market that are labeled as dietary supplements. The amount of CBD contained in these products is not always the same as what is stated on the label.

How does it work ?

Uses & Effectiveness ?

Likely Effective for

  • Seizure disorder (epilepsy). A specific prescription product (Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) is approved by the US FDA to treat seizures caused by Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or tuberous sclerosis complex. It is unclear if other forms of CBD are helpful for seizure. For now, stick with the prescription product.

Possibly Effective for

    (MS). A prescription-only nasal spray product (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) containing both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in over 25 countries outside of the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when it is used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness, but not muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, mobility, or well-being and quality of life in patients with MS.

Side Effects

When taken by mouth: CBD is possibly safe to take in appropriate doses. Doses of up to 200 mg daily have been used safely for up to 13 weeks. With the guidance of a healthcare provider, a specific prescription CBD product (Epidiolex) has been used at higher doses and for longer durations.

CBD can cause some side effects, such as dry mouth, low blood pressure, light headedness, and drowsiness. Signs of liver injury have also been reported with high doses of the prescription form of CBD, called Epidiolex.

When applied to the skin: There isn’t enough reliable information to know if CBD is safe or what the side effects might be.

Special Precautions and Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It may be unsafe to take CBD if you are pregnant or breast feeding. CBD products can be contaminated with other ingredients that may be harmful to the fetus or infant. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: It is possibly safe for children to take a specific prescription CBD product (Epidiolex) by mouth in doses up to 25 mg/kg daily. This product is approved for use in children with certain conditions who are at least 1 year old. It isn’t clear if other CBD products are safe in children.

Liver disease: People with liver disease may need to use lower doses of CBD.

See also  CBD Oil Edible

Parkinson disease: Some early research suggests that taking high doses of CBD might make muscle movement and tremors worse in some people with Parkinson disease.

Interactions ?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

CBD might cause sleepiness and slowed breathing. Some medications, called sedatives, can also cause sleepiness and slowed breathing. Taking CBD with sedative medications might cause breathing problems and/or too much sleepiness.

Clobazam (Onfi) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Clobazam is changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down clobazam. This might increase the effects and side effects of clobazam.

Eslicarbazepine (Aptiom) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Eslicarbazepine is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down eslicarbazepine. This might increase levels of eslicarbazepine in the body by a small amount.

Rufinamide (Banzel) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Rufinamide is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down rufinamide. This might increase levels of rufinamide in the body by a small amount.

Topiramate (Topamax) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Topiramate is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down topiramate. This might increase levels of topiramate in the body by a small amount.

Valproate interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Valproic acid can cause liver injury. Taking cannabidiol with valproic acid might increase the chance of liver injury. CBD and/or valproic acid might need to be stopped, or the dose might need to be reduced.

Zonisamide interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Zonisamide is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down zonisamide. This might increase levels of zonisamide in the body by a small amount.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications changed by the liver (Glucuronidated drugs) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Medications that increase the breakdown of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) inducers) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

CBD is changed and broken down by the liver. Some drugs increase how quickly the liver changes and breaks down CBD. This could change the effects and side effects of CBD.

Medications that increase breakdown of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inducers) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

CBD is changed and broken down by the liver. Some drugs increase how quickly the liver changes and breaks down CBD. This could change the effects and side effects of CBD.

Medications that decrease the breakdown of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) inhibitors) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

CBD is changed and broken down by the liver. Some drugs decrease how quickly the liver changes and breaks down CBD. This could change the effects and side effects of CBD.

Medications that decrease the breakdown of other medications in the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

CBD is changed and broken down by the liver. Some drugs decrease how quickly the liver changes and breaks down CBD. This could change the effects and side effects of CBD.

Brivaracetam (Briviact) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Brivaracetam is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down brivaracetam. This might increase levels of brivaracetam in the body.

Everolimus (Zostress) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Everolimus is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down everolimus. This might increase levels of everolimus in the body.

Tacrolimus (Prograf) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Tacrolimus is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down tacrolimus. This might increase levels of tacrolimus in the body.

Methadone (Dolophine) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Methadone is broken down by the liver. CBD might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down methadone. Taking cannabidiol along with methadone might increase the effects and side effects of methadone.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Carbamazepine is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down carbamazepine. This might increase levels of carbamazepine in the body and increase its side effects.

Sirolimus (Rapamune) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Sirolimus is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down sirolimus. This might increase levels of sirolimus in the body.

Stiripentol (Diacomit) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Stiripentol is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down stiripentol. This might increase levels of stiripentol in the body and increase its side effects.

Lithium interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Taking higher doses of CBD might increase levels of lithium. This can increase the risk of lithium toxicity.

Warfarin interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

CBD might increase levels of warfarin, which can increase the risk for bleeding. CBD and/or warfarin might need to be stopped, or the dose might need to be reduced.

Tamoxifen (Soltamox) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Tamoxifen is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might affect how quickly the body breaks down tamoxifen. This might affect levels of tamoxifen in the body.

Caffeine interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Caffeine is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. This might increase levels of caffeine in the body.

Citalopram (Celexa) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Citalopram is changed and broken down by the body. CBD might decrease how quickly the body breaks down citalopram. This might increase levels of citalopram in the body and increase its side effects.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) substrates) interacts with CANNABIDIOL (CBD)

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. CBD might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Dosing

CBD has most often been used by adults in doses of 200 mg or less per day. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose might be best for a specific condition.

For information on using prescription CBD, a product called Epidiolex, speak with a healthcare provider.

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Srivastava, M. D., Srivastava, B. I., and Brouhard, B. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells. Immunopharmacology 1998;40(3):179-185. View abstract.

Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Marijuana ’90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids 1990;2:5.

Wade, D. T., Collin, C., Stott, C., and Duncombe, P. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Sativex (nabiximols), on spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. Mult.Scler. 2010;16(6):707-714. View abstract.

Wade, D. T., Makela, P., Robson, P., House, H., and Bateman, C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Mult.Scler. 2004;10(4):434-441. View abstract.

Wade, D. T., Robson, P., House, H., Makela, P., and Aram, J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin.Rehabil. 2003;17(1):21-29. View abstract.

Watzl, B., Scuderi, P., and Watson, R. R. Marijuana components stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell secretion of interferon-gamma and suppress interleukin-1 alpha in vitro. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1991;13(8):1091-1097. View abstract.

Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, et al. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. J Mol Med (Berl) 2012;90(8):925-34. View abstract.

Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011;36(6):1219-26. View abstract.

Bisogno T, Di Marzo Y. The role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer’s disease: facts and hypotheses. Curr Pharm Des 2008;14(23):2299-3305. View abstract.

Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2011;51(5):1054-61. View abstract.

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Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, et al. An open-label study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfuntion in advanced multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2004;10(4):425-33. View abstract.

Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, et al. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2012;367(1607):3364-78. View abstract.

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Srivastava, M. D., Srivastava, B. I., and Brouhard, B. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells. Immunopharmacology 1998;40(3):179-185. View abstract.

Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Marijuana ’90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids 1990;2:5.

Wade, D. T., Collin, C., Stott, C., and Duncombe, P. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Sativex (nabiximols), on spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. Mult.Scler. 2010;16(6):707-714. View abstract.

Wade, D. T., Makela, P., Robson, P., House, H., and Bateman, C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Mult.Scler. 2004;10(4):434-441. View abstract.

Wade, D. T., Robson, P., House, H., Makela, P., and Aram, J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin.Rehabil. 2003;17(1):21-29. View abstract.

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“GW Pharmaceuticals plc and Its U.S. Subsidiary Greenwich Biosciences, Inc. Announce That EPIDIOLEX® (cannabidiol) Oral Solution Has Been Descheduled And Is No Longer A Controlled Substance.” GW Pharmaceuticals, 6 April 2020. https://ir.gwpharm.com/node/11356/pdf. Press release.

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Arout CA, Haney M, Herrmann ES, Bedi G, Cooper ZD. The dose-dependent analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of oral cannabidiol in healthy humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021. View abstract.

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Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2011;51(5):1054-61. View abstract.

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Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, et al. An open-label study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfuntion in advanced multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2004;10(4):425-33. View abstract.

Campos AC, Guimaraes FS. Activation of 5HT1A receptors mediates the anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol in a PTSD model. Behav Pharmacol 2009;20:S54.

Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, et al. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2012;367(1607):3364-78. View abstract.

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Carmona-Hidalgo B, García-Martín A, Muñoz E, González-Mariscal I. Detrimental Effect of Cannabidiol on the Early Onset of Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Mice. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14(9):863. View abstract.

Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, et al. Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Neurology 2004;63(7):1245-50. View abstract.

Carvalho RK, Rocha TL, Fernandes FH, et al. Decreasing sperm quality in mice subjected to chronic cannabidiol exposure: New insights of cannabidiol-mediated male reproductive toxicity. Chem Biol Interact 2022;351:109743. View abstract.

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