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How to grow cactus plants from seed

Cacti are fun, easy and cheap to grow from seed – we show you how.

Published: Saturday, 9 May, 2020 at 5:05 pm

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Raising cactus plants, or cacti, from seed is simple and rewarding. What’s more, many seed companies sell packets of mixed cacti seed, so you’re never quite sure what you’re going to grow.

As for the mixes, there are lots of fun themes to go for, including rare species, fast-growers, best flowers, hardy cacti or mixes of certain genera.

How to grow cactus plants

Grow cacti in free-draining compost, ideally peat-free cactus compost or peat-free multi-purpose compost with added vermiculite, grit or perlite, to aid drainage. Water sparingly from March to September but avoid watering completely for the rest of the year.

In this Golden Rules video, Stan Griffin of Craig House Cacti reveals his three top tips on growing cactus plants with success, including when to water and feed, and when not to. He also gives advice on how to take cuttings from cacti:

More on growing cactus plants:

Follow our steps to growing your own cacti from seed, below.

All you need to know about growing cactus plants from seed, for the perfect house plant display. Step-by-step how-to guide from BBC Gardeners’ World Magazine.

Growing Cacti from Seeds

Growing plants from seeds is not as hard as you might think, even though many of us have tried and failed! One of the most common mistakes people make is planting the seeds too deeply. It would be best if you only planted seeds deep in the soil as the seed is wide. When seeds are planted too deeply, the tiny plants emerge and begin to grow but do not reach the surface before they run out of stored food. Follow these instructions for growing cacti from seeds, and you will surely be successful.

Seeds

It is best to use fresh seeds when growing most cacti. Seeds can be obtained from a commercial source or collected from a plant in your collection. Take care when collecting seeds from a cactus collection. Some cactus species hybridize freely, and true seed cannot be assured unless pollination has been monitored carefully.

A good potting mix, amended with ½ its volume of granite, perlite, or pumice for drainage, makes a good mix for growing cacti from seed. The soil must be as pest-free as possible. To pasteurize soil, put it in a shallow heatproof pan, place it in the oven at 300 °F (150 °C) for 30 minutes. Most commercial soils are at least pasteurized, if not sterilized. Check the label.

Planting

Be sure that all containers to be used are clean. The type of container is not important, but shallow ones are preferred. Water the soil thoroughly and let it drain completely before planting. Spread the seeds evenly over the top of the soil. Cover the seeds lightly with the mix or very fine sand. When planted, cover the container with any transparent lid. This will retain moisture and allow light to reach the seedlings.

Germination

Cactus seeds need both light and warmth to germinate. A sunny window is a good location, but be careful the light is not too strong and therefore too hot. The moisture retained by the cover should be sufficient to germinate the seeds. Most cactus seeds germinate within 3 weeks, but some take much longer, be patient. Once the spines are showing, raise the cover for ventilation during the day. Do not allow the soil to dry out. The amount of water will depend on how much light and heat the seedlings receive. Watch the seedlings carefully. Do not swamp them in puddled water but do not let them dry out completely.

Repotting

Seedlings are ready to transplant into larger containers when they are the size of marbles, between 6 months to a year after germination. Be sure the soil mix is very well-drained, and the container is no larger than twice the plant’s diameter. Plants can be grown in clumps or groups of 6 to 8 per pot at this size until they are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) across, then separated and individually reported. Lift the small plants carefully from the growing mix, place in the new container, firm the soil around the roots, and water in.

It is usually best to let the young plants recover from transplanting in a shaded area. Even in cacti that naturally grow with full sun, seedlings will be tender to the full sun until they are older. Acclimate a young plant to the sun gradually, beginning when it is about 1 inch (2.5 cm) across. It is often easier to acclimate young plants to the sun in the winter and provide some shade in the summer until they are about 3 inches (7.5 cm) across.

Fertilization

Fertilize young seedlings monthly in the growing season, usually the warm season. Use a formulation specifically for cactus or an all-purpose soluble houseplant formula at ½ the recommended strength.

Links
  • Succulentopedia: Browse succulents by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, USDA Hardiness Zone, Origin, or cacti by Genus

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Follow these instructions for growing cacti from seeds, and you will surely be successful. It is best to use fresh seeds when growing…